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Change management process and model

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Prosci's change management methodology

Prosci's change management methodology is based on research with over 2600 participants over the last fourteen years. What is unique about the methodology is that it comes from real project leaders and teams reflecting on what worked, what did not and what they would do differently on their next projects. At its core, Prosci's methodology is the collective lessons learned by those introducing change across the globe. Based on this research, Prosci's goal has been to develop a methodology that is holistic and at the same time easy to use. The resulting process, tools and assessments have been developed with one goal in mind: that you can put them to use on your projects, building your (and your organization's) own internal change management skill set. Below is a high-level overview of Prosci's methodology.

Research forms the foundation of Prosci's methodology.

To the right is the geographic distribution of participants in the latest benchmarking study. 650 participants from 62 countries shared best practices that form the foundation of Prosci's change management approach.

Prosci's research examines what works and what does not work across a wide spectrum of the change management discipline, including methodology, communications, sponsorship, manager and supervisor engagement, resistance management and training. Each year, Prosci adds new fields to the study. Recent focuses have included change management measurement, engagement of senior leaders, change management positions and job roles, resourcing and budgeting decisions, location of the Change Management Office, and tactics for deploying change management more broadly throughout an organization.

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Three easy ways to begin applying Prosci's change management methodology:

Certification program - In Prosci's 3-day certification program, learn the underlying concepts and principles and then apply the methodology and tools to a project you bring with support from one of Prosci's experienced executive instructors. Do it yourself, online option - Prosci's Change Management Pilot Pro 2012 is an online tool that has step-by-step instructions for applying the methodology, eLearning modules and downloadable templates, assessments and presentations you can use immediately. Do it yourself, hardcopy - Prosci's Change Management Toolkit presents the entire methodology and guiding principles in a 3-ring binder with a CD-ROM containing templates and assessments.

 

Key principles:

  1. Change management requires both an individual and an organizational perspective
  2. ADKAR presents an easy-to-use model for individual change
  3. The 3-phase process gives structure to the steps project teams should take

 

Change management requires both an individual and an organizational perspective

Individual change management Organizational change management
Understanding how one person
makes a change successfully
Understanding what tools we have to help
individuals make changes successfully
Organizations don't change, individuals do. No matter how large of a project you are taking on, the success of that project ultimately lies with each employee doing their work differently, multiplied across all of the employees impacted by the change. Effective change management requires an understanding for and appreciation of how one person makes a change successfully. Without an individual perspective, we are left with activities but no idea of the goal or outcome that we are trying to achieve. While change happens one person at a time, there are processes and tools that can be used to facilitate this change. Tools like communication and training are often the only activities when no structured approach is applied. When there is an organizational change management perspective, a process emerges for how to scale change management activities and how to use the complete set of tools available for project leaders and business managers.

 

ADKAR presents an easy-to-use model for individual change

The first step in managing any type of organizational change is understanding how to manage change with a single individual. Prosci's model of individual change is called ADKAR - an acronym for Awareness, Desire, Knowledge, Ability and Reinforcement. In essence, to make a change successfully an individual needs:

  • Awareness of the need for change
  • Desire to participate and support the change
  • Knowledge on how to change
  • Ability to implement required skills and behaviors
  • Reinforcement to sustain the change

ADKAR describes successful change at the individual level. When an organization undertakes an initiative, that change only happens when the employees who have to do their jobs differently can say with confidence, "I have the Awareness, Desire, Knowledge, Ability and Reinforcement to make this change happen."

Because it outlines the goals or outcomes of successful change, ADKAR is an effective tool for:

  • Planning change management activities
  • Diagnosing gaps
  • Developing corrective actions
  • Supporting managers and supervisors

 

The 3-phase process gives structure to the steps project teams should take

Prosci's organizational change management process was first introduced in 2002 after the third change management benchmarking study was conducted. Prosci felt that with the third study, there was a strong enough research basis for the process below. This process is built in steps that a project team can complete for a particular change or initiative they are supporting. The methodology includes research-based assessments and templates that are available in the online Change Management Pilot Pro 2012 or hardcopy Change Management Toolkit, or by attending one of Prosci's 3-day certification programs.

Phase 1 - Preparing for change

The first phase in Prosci's methodology is aimed at getting ready. It answers the question: "how much change management is needed for this specific project?" The first phase provides the situational awareness that is critical for effective change management.

Outputs of Phase 1:

  • Change characteristics profile
  • Organizational attributes profile
  • Change management strategy
  • Change management team structure
  • Sponsor assessment, structure and roles

Phase 2 - Managing change

The second phase of Prosci's process is focused on creating the plans that are integrated into the project activities - what people typically think of when they talk about change management. Based on Prosci's research, there are five plans that should be created to help individuals move through the ADKAR Model.

Outputs of Phase 2:

  • Communication plan
  • Sponsor roadmap
  • Training plan
  • Coaching plan
  • Resistance management plan

Phase 3 - Reinforcing change

Equally critical but most often overlooked, the third phase of Prosci's process helps project teams create specific action plans for ensuring that the change is sustained. In this phase, project teams develop measures and mechanisms to see if the change has taken hold, to the see if employees are actually doing their jobs the new way and to celebrate success.

Outputs of Phase 3:

  • Reinforcement mechanisms
  • Compliance audit reports
  • Corrective action plans
  • Individual and group recognition approaches
  • Success celebrations
  • After action review

 

Conclusion:

The linkage between individual change management and organizational change management is the key - and is what sets Prosci's approach apart from other change management methodologies. There are numerous models available that address individual change. There are also numerous models available that give guidance and structure to project activities for change management resources. The difference with Prosci's methodology is that it integrates individual change management and organizational change management to ensure the achievement of business results.

The image below shows the connection between the change management tools developed in the organizational change management process and the phases of individual change described by the ADKAR model. This picture is the essence of effective change management and is the core of Prosci's change management methodology.

Connecting organizational and individual change management

 

 

Three easy ways to begin applying Prosci's change management methodology:

Certification program - In Prosci's 3-day certification program, learn the underlying concepts and principles and then apply the methodology and tools to a project you bring with support from one of Prosci's experienced executive instructors. Do it yourself, online option - Prosci's Change Management Pilot Pro 2012 is an online tool that has step-by-step instructions for applying the methodology, eLearning modules and downloadable templates, assessments and presentations you can use immediately. Do it yourself, hardcopy - Prosci's Change Management Toolkit presents the entire methodology and guiding principles in a 3-ring binder with a CD-ROM containing templates and assessments.

 

 


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